Go Around and Missed Approach
This procedure is used
1.When a pilot makes an instrument approach, and reaches decision height on the final approach and the runway is not visible or RVR drops below minumum.
2. The pilot is too high.
3. Other problems that make a go around required such as a problem with the aircraft .
4. ATC giving you and instruction to go around.
5. The pilot deems it unsafe to land traffic on the runway severe windshear ,severe thunderstorm, not in safe position to land due to crosswinds. Vortex wake from previous landing aircraft.
6 The no autoland light coming on and the land 3 light going off that is also a go around situation. (Cat 2 or Cat 3 approach)
It is important the correct procedures are followed. Because most times pilots land safely we get rusty on this procedure and often forget how to do it. Add the bad visibility an emergency perhaps and high terrain it is very easy to get into difficulty, especially with autopilot aircraft with FMC computers as the FMC computer and autopliot will try and land you unless you tell it you are going around. It is very important therefore that you follow the missed approach procedure correctly. Failure to do this this can cause engines not to spoil up to climb thrust when you try and climb and cause a stall especially if you make a steep turn increasing your stalling speed. If not done correctly you go in the trees or buildings. Lets go through it bit by bit and get it correct.
The first thing you do not do is climb out until you are over the runway as if you climb to early you may be climbing straight into the path of another aircraft above at a higher level which is cleared above the airfield to transit.
On an instrument approach the time for the approach from the final approach fix to the go around point is given on the charts for a given speed. Therefore it is important on bad visibility days you start the stop watch as you cross the final approach fix and if you do not see the runway go around after the elapsed time. (Unless on a complete autoland. This would be for a VOR or NDB approach or visual approach) Do not go around before the elapsed time. On visual approach start the go around as you cross over the runway threshold. Be alert to the no autoland light coming on and the land 3 light going off that is also a go around situation.
It is important you know where the high ground is and the minimum safety height. So good approach chart study is essential before the approach and brief it to the pilot not flying.
On the manual go around do this :-
Press the go around button rotate to 15 degrees nose up and apply power smoothly reduce to flaps 20. The important thing is to rotate. Only when you are in the climb , lift the landing gear then gradually speed up and clean up flaps. Do not exceed the speed limit. Advise ATC of go around and follow the missed approach procedure. Listen for ATC instructions. Remember to reset the L Nav or HDG select button and the autopilot CMD button. (Remember heading select will not work until the aircraft reaches 400ft. But you can set it.)
Be aware on what mode the autopilot is doing and the FMC you may have to reset the Flight Director and autothrottle switch. Remember if the aircraft is below 400 ft the heading mode will not arm until you are above it.
Do not fly the missed approach procedure in VS climb mode it is banned due to the stall risk.
It is important that if you do a manual approach with the autopilot turned off ,that when you carry out the manual go around you must not re-engage the autopilot CMD button until passing 1200 ft. When you do so the autopilot will come on in VS mode so press FL Ch. Reselect the airspeed you require and rearm the autothrottle. If you are going to make another approach keep the airspeed at about 190 knots with flap 5 do not clean the aircraft right up to flaps up. Do not accelerate to 250 knots as you are going to have to slow down again. Reset the flight director this will get the aircraft out of the land mode. Many pilots fly good approaches only to fail their check ride on this problem.
Constantly monitor the FMC and autopilot mode know what it is doing watch your speed height and heading. Remember to reset the FMC route.
For this to work It is therefore important that once the aircraft has captured the glidescope on the ILS,( or Alt Hold at decision height on VOR approach that you then put the missed approach altitude in the altitude window of the autopilot.
Be aware also your aircraft maybe stuck in Hdg Hold as well so you may need to reset that by pushing on the HDG selector switch
On the go around it is important you do not follow the magenta flight director bars initially on the artificial horizon just rotate to 15 degrees pitch up or 12 degrees if you have a one engine shut down. The flight director bars will come and find you eventually as they lag.
If you are flying on one engine all go arounds must be done manually
You can practice the go around procedure flying circuits around an airfield. See the lecture on flying a circuit. Try it with a VOR approach and with ILS detuned. Then try it also with ILS tuned for a full autoland Get down to 300ft then go around.
The go around mode is armed when the pilot lowers flaps on final approach or the GS indication goes green on glidescope intercept. This is shown with a little GA green above the engine instruments window. Once this is done reset the go around height in the autopilot window. If you are flying the approach with the autopilots on all you have to do to go around is push the GA button. The aircraft will climb out at 2000FPM reset you airspeed to about 190 knots.
Extra effort to listen to ATC is essential here and follow their instructions if unable advise. remember terrain at all times keep a mental picture where the airfield is at all times. There is a lot happening in this space of time so practice practice practice. Just send us a flight report with circuit go around practice on the flying hours count.
You have to be doing a lot all at the same time here recheck and monitor constantly listen out for ATC